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Stefan Bühler 7 months ago
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  1. 127
      README.md
  2. 152
      cgnat-demo.sh
  3. 61
      fix-vrf-rules.sh
  4. 66
      nft.conf
  5. 44
      tmux_base.conf

127
README.md

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# Carrier-grade NAT demo (work in progress)
> **Current state**: cross-VRF routing is working, but NAT breaks it.
>
> conntrack log shows state is immediately destroyed after it gets created,
> and the packet is "lost" between `up` and `muplink`.
The basic idea of `100.64.0.0/10` seems to be that a CGN-Router should be able to handle multiple interfaces using `100.64.0.0/10` (including an uplink), but keeping them separated.
Now theoretically it should work moving each interface (apart from the uplink) into a different network namespace, connect all network namespaces with `veth` pairs to the main one (using some other IP addresses...), and enable SNAT when forwarding packets to the main namespace, and SNAT again when forwarding to the uplink.
This demo tries to use VRFs; hopefully this results in having to NAT only once (and doesn't need additional local IP addresses).
To test yourself run `./cgnat-demo.sh` as root (doesn't need network, so feel free to use some isolated container/VM/...):
- spawns `tmux` with multiple windows after setup is done (`ip vrf/netns exec ...` and others)
- `tmux` is configured to use `ctrl-a` prefix (like screen)
- `tmux` shouldn't be detached; default detach keybind (`ctrl-a d`) is replaced to prompt for session destroy
Dependencies:
- `nftables` for NAT / trace
- `conntrack` to show conntrack events
- `tmux` to open shells in various contexts
## Example pings
- Working in `blue_c2`:
- `ping -I 192.0.2.2 192.0.2.1` - ping `uplink` "public" IP
- `ping 100.64.0.1` - ping `blue_c1`
- `ping 2001:db8:b:10::1` - ping `blue_c1`
- `ping 100.127.255.254` - ping gateway
- `ping 2001:db8:b:10::ffff` - ping gateway
- `ping 2001:db8:b:20::1` - ping `red_c1`
- `ping 2001:db8:a::ffff` - ping `uplink`
- `ping 2001:db8:a::1` - ping `main` (i.e. `up:muplink`)
- Broken everywhere but `uplink`:
- `ping 192.0.2.1`
- Broken in `up`:
- `ping 100.127.255.254` (works as soon NAT gets disabled)
## Basic design
- Run everything in a separate network+mount+UTS namespace
- Explicit VRFs for everything, including the uplink
- Uplink VRF (`up`) with `muplink` interface
- Two client VRFs (`blue` and `red`), each with a brigde to connect clients to
- Simulate an uplink with one client (in namespace `uplink`)
- Simulate two clients in VRF `blue` (namespaces `blue_c1` and `blue_c2`)
- Simulate one clients in VRF `red` (namespace `red_c1`)
- IPv4: NAT from client VRFs (`blue` and `red`) to uplink `up`
- IPv6: no NAT, proper routing
- Route `192.0.2.2` from uplink all the way through to `blue_c2` (test IPv4 cross-VRF connectivity without NAT)
Topology:
```
+--------------------+ +-----------------------+ +--------------------+
| uplink: | | main: | | blue_c1: |
| lo | | lo | | lo |
| | | up (vrf) | +--=---> cuplink (veth) |
| client1 (veth) <-=-=--> muplink (veth) | | +--------------------+
+--------------------+ | blue (vrf) | |
| br-blue (bridge) | | +--------------------+
| blue_c1 (veth) <-=--+ | blue_c2: |
| blue_c2 (veth) <-=--+ | lo |
| red (vrf) | +--=---> cuplink (veth) |
| br-red (bridge) | +--------------------+
| red_c1 (veth) <--=--+
+-----------------------+ | +--------------------+
| | red_c1: |
| | lo |
+--=---> cuplink (veth) |
+--------------------+
```
## Basic VRF setup
Proper VRF `ip rule` setup with unreachables if VRF table didn't succeed:
```
1000: from all lookup [l3mdev-table]
2000: from all lookup [l3mdev-table] unreachable
32765: from all lookup local
32766: from all lookup main
```
(+ `lookup default` in IPv4)
## `uplink` configuration
- Address `192.0.2.1/32` on `lo`
- Addresses `100.127.255.254/10` and `2001:db8:a::ffff/64` on `client1`
- Route `2001:db8:b::/48 via 2001:db8:a::1 dev client1`
- Route `192.0.2.2 via 100.64.0.1 dev client1`
## `main:up` configuration
- Addresses `100.64.0.1/10` and `2001:db8:a::1/64` on `muplink`
- Route `default via 100.127.255.254 dev muplink` and `default via 2001:db8:a::ffff dev muplink`
- Route `2001:db8:b:10::/64 dev blue` (forward to VRF `blue`)
- Route `2001:db8:b:20::/64 dev red` (forward to VRF `red`)
- Route `192.0.2.2 dev blue` (forward to VRF `blue`)
## `main:blue` configuration
- Addresses `100.127.255.254/10` and `2001:db8:b:10::ffff/64` on `br-blue`
- Route `default dev up` (IPv4 + IPv6) - forward to VRF `up`
- Route `192.0.2.2 dev br-blue` (connected in `blue_c2`)
## `main:red` configuration
- Addresses `100.127.255.254/10` and `2001:db8:b:20::ffff/64` on `br-red`
- Route `default dev up` (IPv4 + IPv6) - forward to VRF `up`
## client configuration
- Addresses on `cuplink`:
- `blue_c1`: `100.64.0.1/10` and `2001:db8:b:10::1/64`
- `blue_c2`: `100.64.0.2/10` and `2001:db8:b:10::2/64`, also `192.0.2.2/32`
- `red_c1`: `100.64.0.1/10` and `2001:db8:b:20::1/64`
- Route `default via 100.127.255.254 dev cuplink`
- Route `default via 2001:db8:b:$$$$::ffff dev cuplink` (depending on `blue`/`red`)
## TODO
- get NAT working
- test whether one can route to `lo` instead of VRF `up` (and drop VRF `up`), or whether there are other ways for for cross-VRF routing

152
cgnat-demo.sh

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#!/bin/bash
set -e
if [ "$1" != "--inner" ]; then
if [ ! -d "/run/netns" ]; then
mkdir /run/netns
chmod 0755 /run/netns
fi
export tmpdir=$(mktemp -p /run -d netns-cgnat-demo-XXXXXXX)
trap 'rm -rf "${tmpdir}"' EXIT
export NAMESPACEDIR="${tmpdir}/netns"
mkdir "${NAMESPACEDIR}"
chmod 0755 "${NAMESPACEDIR}"
# Run actuall demo in network+mount+UTS namespaces
unshare -m -n -u -- "$0" --inner
echo "Cleaning up"
# cleanup afterwards
exit 0
fi
show_failed_command() {
local rc=$?
if [ "${rc}" -ne 0 ]; then
printf 'Failed command: %s\n' "${BASH_COMMAND}"
fi
exit $rc
}
trap show_failed_command EXIT
cd "$(dirname "$(readlink -f "$0")")"
cp tmux_base.conf "${tmpdir}/tmux.conf"
printf >>"${tmpdir}/tmux.conf" 'new-session -n main -s cgnat-demo "%s"\n' "${SHELL} -i"
printf >>"${tmpdir}/tmux.conf" 'new-window -d -n trace "nft monitor trace"\n'
printf >>"${tmpdir}/tmux.conf" 'new-window -d -n conntrack "conntrack -E -o timestamp"\n'
# setup local ip-netns "namespace" (so ip-netns names don't conflict with other stuff)
mount -o bind "${NAMESPACEDIR}" /run/netns
mount --make-private /run/netns
# gonna do routing
sysctl -q net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
sysctl -q net.ipv6.conf.default.forwarding=1
sysctl -q net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1
# basic setup of our main network namespace
ip link set dev lo up
./fix-vrf-rules.sh
netns() {
local name="$1"
shift
ip netns exec "${name}" "$@"
}
create_netns() {
local name="$1"
ip netns add "${name}"
# basic setup
ip -n "${name}" link set dev lo up
netns "${name}" ./fix-vrf-rules.sh
}
# build explicit VRF to uplink (and route others through)
ip link add name "up" type vrf table "1"
ip link set dev "up" up
printf >>"${tmpdir}/tmux.conf" 'new-window -d -n up -e debian_chroot=up "%s"\n' "ip vrf exec up ${SHELL} -i"
export UPLINK="100.127.255.254" # last usable ip in 100.64.0.0/10
export UPLINK6="2001:db8:a::ffff"
export PUBLIC="192.0.2.1"
# build "uplink": uplink has one client: the "main" netns
create_netns "uplink"
ip link add name muplink type veth peer client1
ip link set dev client1 netns "uplink"
ip -n "uplink" address add "${PUBLIC}/32" dev lo
ip -n "uplink" link set dev client1 up
ip -n "uplink" address add "${UPLINK}/10" dev client1
ip -n "uplink" address add "${UPLINK6}/64" dev client1
ip -n "uplink" route add "2001:db8:b::/48" via 2001:db8:a::1 dev client1
ip link set dev muplink vrf "up" up
ip address add 100.64.0.1/10 dev muplink
ip address add 2001:db8:a::1/64 dev muplink
ip route add default vrf "up" via "${UPLINK}" dev muplink
ip -6 route add default vrf "up" via "${UPLINK6}" dev muplink
printf >>"${tmpdir}/tmux.conf" 'new-window -d -n uplink -e debian_chroot=uplink "%s"\n' "ip netns exec uplink ${SHELL} -i"
declare -A VRFIDS
create_client_vrf() {
local vrfname="$1"
local vrfid=$2
VRFIDS[${vrfname}]=${vrfid}
ip link add name "${vrfname}" type vrf table "${vrfid}"
ip link add name "br-${vrfname}" type bridge
ip link set dev "br-${vrfname}" master "${vrfname}" up
ip link set dev "${vrfname}" up
ip address add "${UPLINK}/10" dev "br-${vrfname}"
ip address add "2001:db8:b:${vrfid}::ffff/64" dev "br-${vrfname}"
ip route add "2001:db8:b:${vrfid}::/64" vrf "up" dev "${vrfname}" # route-leak IPv6 clients
ip route add default vrf "${vrfname}" dev "up" # route-leak uplink
ip -6 route add default vrf "${vrfname}" dev "up" # route-leak uplink
printf >>"${tmpdir}/tmux.conf" 'new-window -d -n %s -e debian_chroot=%s "%s"\n' "${vrfname}" "${vrfname}" "ip vrf exec ${vrfname} ${SHELL} -i"
}
create_client() {
local vrfname="$1"
local name="$2"
local id="$3"
local vrfid=${VRFIDS[$vrfname]}
local ip="100.64.0.${id}/10"
local ipv6="2001:db8:b:${vrfid}::${id}/64"
create_netns "${name}"
ip link add name "${name}" type veth peer cuplink
ip link set dev cuplink netns "${name}"
ip -n "${name}" address add "${ip}" dev cuplink
ip -n "${name}" address add "${ipv6}" dev cuplink
ip -n "${name}" link set dev cuplink up
ip -n "${name}" route add default via "${UPLINK}" dev cuplink
ip -n "${name}" route add default via "2001:db8:b:${vrfid}::ffff" dev cuplink
sysctl -q "net.ipv6.conf.${name}.disable_ipv6=1" # disable ipv6 on bridge slave
ip link set dev "${name}" master "br-${vrfname}" up
printf >>"${tmpdir}/tmux.conf" 'new-window -d -n %s -e debian_chroot=%s "%s"\n' "${name}" "${name}" "ip netns exec ${name} ${SHELL} -i"
}
# setup firewall / NAT
/usr/sbin/nft -f nft.conf
create_client_vrf "blue" 10
create_client "blue" "blue_c1" 1
create_client "blue" "blue_c2" 2
create_client_vrf "red" 20
create_client "red" "red_c1" 1
# without NAT ipv4 seems to be working:
ip -n "blue_c2" address add "192.0.2.2/32" dev cuplink
ip route add "192.0.2.2/32" vrf "blue" dev br-blue # on bridge in vrf blue
ip route add "192.0.2.2/32" vrf "up" dev blue # leak to vrf up
ip -n "uplink" route add "192.0.2.2/32" via "100.64.0.1" dev client1 # static route in uplink
echo
echo "--- Have fun checking it out yourself (exit the shell to close the experiment)."
export debian_chroot=cgnat-demo
exec tmux -L "cgnat-demo-$$" -f "${tmpdir}/tmux.conf" attach

61
fix-vrf-rules.sh

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#!/bin/sh
# Creating a VRF on linux (like `ip link add vrf_foobar type vrf table 10`) automatically inserts a
# `l3mdev` rule (both IPv4 and IPv6) with preference 1000 by default.
#
# Sadly this means that the `lookup local` with preference 0 (the table `local` containing your
# addresses in the "default VRF") is queried before that, which breaks routing of packets from a
# VRF to your non-VRF addresses.
#
# So you actually want the `l3mdev` rule before the `lookup local` rule, and this script helps with
# that.
#
# Your VRF routing table usually is contained completely in the table you specified when creating
# the VRF; this script also creates an "pref 2000 l3mdev unreachable" rule to make sure within VRFs
# no routes "outside" the VRF are used. (As an alternative you could add `unreachable default
# metric 4278198272` routes in both IPv4 and IPv6 VRF tables).
#
# This should still leave enough room to add policy-based routing rules if you need them.
#
# Also see `vrf_prepare()` and `vrf_create()` in linux kernel
# source:tools/testing/selftests/net/forwarding/lib.sh
set -e
has_rule() {
if [ -n "$(ip $family rule list "$@")" ]; then
# echo "Have: ip $family rule $*"
return 0
else
# echo "Have not: ip $family rule $*"
return 1
fi
}
rule() {
# echo "Running: ip $family rule $*"
ip $family rule "$@"
}
run() {
# move lookup local to pref 32765 (from 0)
if ! has_rule pref 32765 lookup local; then
rule add pref 32765 lookup local
fi
if has_rule pref 0 lookup local; then
rule del pref 0 lookup local
fi
# make sure that in VRFs after failed lookup in the VRF specific table nothing else is reached
if ! has_rule pref 1000 l3mdev; then
# this should be added by the kernel when a VRF is created; add it here for completeness
rule add pref 1000 l3mdev protocol kernel
fi
if ! has_rule pref 2000 l3mdev; then # can't search for actions; so can't make sure this is actually using "unreachable"
rule add pref 2000 l3mdev unreachable
fi
}
family=-4
run
family=-6
run

66
nft.conf

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#!/usr/sbin/nft -f
flush ruleset
# Counting IPv4 packets in `inet` tables:
# meta nfproto ipv4 counter accept
# NAT when routing packets from some VRF to "up" VRF
table inet nat {
chain postrouting {
type nat hook postrouting priority srcnat; policy accept;
ip saddr 100.64.0.0/10 oif "up" counter masquerade
# 192.0.2.2 is statically routed: stops working as soon as NAT is enabled
# ip saddr 192.0.2.2/32 oif "up" counter masquerade
accept # less noise in trace
}
# pre kernel 4.18 needs this:
chain prerouting {
type nat hook prerouting priority -100; policy accept;
accept # less noise in trace
}
}
# Trace all IPv4:
# define filter hooks so we see packets tracing through them
table inet main {
chain prerouting {
type filter hook prerouting priority filter; policy accept;
accept # less noise in trace
}
chain input {
type filter hook input priority filter; policy accept;
accept # less noise in trace
}
chain forward {
type filter hook forward priority filter; policy accept;
accept # less noise in trace
}
chain output {
type filter hook output priority filter; policy accept;
accept # less noise in trace
}
chain postrouting {
type filter hook postrouting priority filter; policy accept;
accept # less noise in trace
}
}
# enable tracing for all IPv4 packets (either start in prerouting or output)
table ip traceall {
chain prerouting {
type filter hook prerouting priority -350; policy accept;
meta nftrace set 1 accept
}
chain output {
type filter hook output priority -350; policy accept;
meta nftrace set 1 accept
}
}

44
tmux_base.conf

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# screen like prefix
set-option -g prefix C-a
unbind-key C-b
bind-key a send-prefix
bind-key C-a last-window
# Ctrl-N for next window
# bind-key -T root ^N next-window
bind-key -n ^N next-window
# Ctrl-P for previous window
# bind-key -T root ^P previous-window
bind-key -n ^P previous-window
# ctrl-arrow keys
set-window-option -g xterm-keys on
# layout/colours
set-option -g status-bg black
set-option -g status-fg colour45
set-option -g status-justify centre
set-option -g status-keys vi
set-option -g status-left "#[fg=green][ #H ]#[fg=red] [ #W ]"
set-option -g status-left-length 40
set-option -g status-right "#[fg=colour5][ %H:%M %d-%b-%y ]"
#set-option -g status-utf8 on
set-window-option -g monitor-activity on
set-window-option -g window-status-current-style bold
set-window-option -g window-status-current-format "#[fg=colour196](#[fg=default]#I#F #W#[fg=colour196])"
set-window-option -g window-status-format "[#I#F #W]"
#set-window-option -g window-status-alert-fg color226
set-option -g set-titles on
set-window-option -g automatic-rename off
set-window-option -g allow-rename on
# destroy instead of detach
bind-key d confirm-before -p "kill session #S? (y/n)" kill-session
# vim style :quit / :q
set-option -s command-alias[200] quit='confirm-before -p "kill session #S? (y/n)" kill-session'
set-option -s command-alias[201] q='confirm-before -p "kill session #S? (y/n)" kill-session'
# new -n bash "exec /bin/bash"
# ...
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